RECIDIVISM AND PRISON BOOT CAMP. RECIDIVISM AND PRISON BOOT CAMP. Term Paper ID:30494 Essay Subject: Research study on high prison recidivism rate.... 8 Pages / 1800 Words 12 sources, 17 Citations, APA Format 32.00 Paper Abstract: Research study on high prison recidivism rate. Major problem of recidivism in the criminal corrections system.
Use of schock incarcertation or the prison boot camp concept as an approach to solving the problem. Goal and objectives of shock incarcertation and other alternative approaches. Cites results based on studies.Paper Introduction: RECIDIVISM: A REVIEW AND AN ANALYSIS I. Introduction The essence of the major problem confronting criminal corrections in the United States is the unacceptably high recidivism rate among the offenders processed through the system.
The results of the application of many different approaches to the problem fail to provide a definitive answer to the recidivism problem. One approach that has become widely used in the United States is shock incarceration, or the prison boot camp concept (Bentayou, 1995). Early research on the use of shock incarceration gave the programs glowing reviews. In all too many instances, however, the studies assessed limited data and tended to develop the findings that advocates of the concept wanted (Marcus-Mendoza, Klein-Saffran, The underlying basis of this measure is rehabilitation.
The study differentiated between recidivism related to paroleviolations and new crimes. B., & Terry, W.
Third, a measure of theeffectiveness of such programs is the reduction of the long-term rate ofrecidivism. (1998, May). Characteristicsassociated with successful adjustment to supervision.
html Gray, M. (1992). L., Shaw, J.
Retrieved from the Internet 2 1-11-26 at:http://pcs. la.
psu. edu/bootcamp2 / Boot%2 Camp%2 Recidivism%2 Study.
htm Stinchcomb, J. Thus, the researchers concluded that it was likely more intensesupervision, as opposed to the shock incarceration, that accounted for thesuperior adjustment of the shock parolees to community supervision. Further, the researchers found that intervening variables offered noadditional explanations of any differences between the four sample groupswhen the level of supervision was controlled. In all too many instances, however, the studies assessedlimited data and tended to develop the findings that advocates of theconcept wanted (Marcus-Mendoza, Klein-Saffran, & Lutze, 1998).
Washington: National Council onCrime and Delinquency. W., & Souryal, C.
Offense-focused problemsolving: Preliminary evaluation of a cognitive skills program. The examination found that boot camp programs do not leadto lower recidivism rates than those associated with traditionalcorrections programs, which supports the study hypothesis.
Methods The initial part of the examination of the effect of shockincarceration in recidivism involves a review and assessment of literaturecovering the structure, implementation, and early findings associated withprison boot camps. Predicting thelikelihood of rearrest among shock incarceration graduates: Moving beyondanother nail in the boot camp coffin.
The study found that theoverall recidivism rate for boot camp inmates was higher (45.3 percent) toa statistically significant extent (p. K., Fields, M., & Maxwell, S. MSNBC.
Overview of theDepartment of Juvenile Justice Recidivism Report for Commitment Programs, FY 1996-97. (1999, December 23). The researchers reported that the recidivism rate was virtually thesame for all groups of prisoners studied (Mackenzie, Shaw, & Souryal,1992). L., & Leone, B.
Florida Department of Juvenile Justice. Dosuch programs lead to reductions in the recidivism rate in the post-corrections period?
MacKenzie, D. Research Digest(21), 1-4. A later study by the FloridaDepartment of Juvenile Justice (1998) confirmed these findings.
Chart 2 illustrates thevariations in behaviors leading to recidivism. (1995). Retrieved from the Internet 2 1-11-26 at: http://www.
djj. state. Crime and criminals.
The prison boot camp alternative involves the placing of qualifyingoffenders in a military basic training type situation for a limited timeduring which participants receive intensive disciplinary training, alongwith rehabilitative and self-esteem services. Examiningprobation violations: Who, what, and when. Thus, regardless of how well the researchers contended that shockincarceration parolees adjusted to community supervision when the level ofsupervision was not controlled, the fact remains that the end outcome isvirtually the same for all prisoners. The results of the application ofmany different approaches to the problem fail to provide a definitiveanswer to the recidivism problem. B.
Time to stick a fork in America'scorrectional boot camp boondoggle. [pic] IV.
Intensive corrections supervision is effectively limited toparticipants in shock incarceration programs. (1993). L., Wilson, D.
The following section explains the methods followed in theexamination. Retrieved from the Internet 2 1-11-26 at: http://www. nospank.
org/kraj. htm MacKenzie, D. [pic] [pic] The Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (2 1) study also found astatistically significant (p.
A third goal of such programs is the reduction of overcrowding inprisons (Austin, Jones, & Bolyard, 1992). r. 5) than for inmates of othercorrections programs (41.2 percent).
(1998, Spring). B., & Kider, S. In 2 1,research on the effectiveness of shock incarceration in reducing recidivismis mixed, with most studies either finding no benefits for prison bootcamps over traditional corrections approaches or that the outcomesassociated with the shock incarceration concept are inferior to otucomesassociated with traditional corrections programs (MacKenzie, Wilson, &Kider, 2 1). References Austin, J.
, Jones, M., & Bolyard, M.
It is quite an understandablemotivation for prisoners with longer sentences to attempt to successfullycomplete the shock incarceration program as a means of minimizing theirtime in ordinary prisons. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. The results/findings of the examination follow thepresentation of the methods. These findings, however, were unadjusted for the level ofsupervision.
The problem, however, is that intensive supervision inconjunction with shock incarceration programs has not produced any positiveeffects on the long-term recidivism rate (Mackenzie & Shaw, 1993). The underlying bases of this measureare deterrence and rehabilitation. (1992). 1) relationship between recidivism and theconviction offense leading to incarceration. Second, a measure of the effectiveness of such programs is the reductionof the short-term rate of recidivism.
Results/Findings Early research found that shock incarceration parolees adjustedsignificantly more positively during the community supervision phase thandid other corrections sample groups (Mackenzie, Shaw, & Souryal, 1992).Shock incarceration dropouts adjusted in a similar manner to probationersand parolees. The latter part of the examination assesses datadeveloped through a study by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections(2 1) of the prison boot camp program in that state. The impact of shock incarcerationon technical violations and new criminal activities. The Annals of the AmericanAcademy of Political and Social Science, 126-127.
Overall-recidivismrates decline with inmate age at the time of release from incarceration(from 53.1 percent for inmates 21 years old or younger at the time ofrelease from incarceration to 38 percent for inmates aged 3 - to-35 yearsold at the time of release from incarceration). It is hypothesizedthat shock incarceration does not lead to reduced recidivism. (2 1, October). When the level of supervision was controlled, the researchers foundthat shock incarceration parolees adjusted no more positively to communitysupervision than did the other sample groups (Mackenzie, Shaw, & Souryal,1992).
Early research found that the variables most strongly associated withthe successful completion of the community supervision phase of the shockincarceration program were IQ, locus of control, and prison term length(Mackenzie, Shaw, & Souryal, 1992). The success of intensivesupervision in shock incarceration programs, however, indicates that theconcept would work equally as well in conjunction with any correctionsprogram.
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