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Paper Introduction: Robert Goldhammer Robert Goldhammer was an educator who strongly believed that teachers should have ongoing supervision in order to continue their effectiveness and to maximize pupil learning.
He was an early proponent of the process of "clinical supervision," a term coined by his mentor, Morris Cogan, during their mutual work at Harvard (Krajewski & Anderson, 1980, p.
He refined Professor Cogan's eight step process, called "the cycle of supervision," to a less complex method of five stages, which he called the "sequence of supervision" (Krajewski, 1982, p.
39). His landmark text, Clinical Supervision: Special Methods for the Supervision of Teachers (Goldhammer, 1969), was the first in this new field. The ideas for clinical supervision found their roots in the Krajewski, R. J. Thesupervisor must sensitively know the frame of reference of the teacher,"his values, his ideals, his concepts, his feelings and his anxieties"(1969, p.
The ideas for clinical supervision found their roots in the Harvard-Lexington and Harvard-Newton programs, which trained principals, supervisors, teachers and student teachers for their positions.
41-42), clinical supervisionentered the past decade as a warmly pursued topic.
368). Too often inthe past, supervision was about superficial aspects of teaching, such asthe bulletin board display or the teacher's physical posture.
Goldhammerwas a faculty member in the Harvard-Lexington program, and for five yearshe served on the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh. The supervisorgives feedback to the teacher, a form of adult reward, which is very rarefor most teachers. 41). Although in actual practice there are obstacles--lack of time andmoney, few trained supervisors, no one to supervise the supervisors, lackof consensus about the purpose of supervision, the bargaining power ofteacher unions--the aim of clinical supervision will be realized when "byvirtue of its existence, everyone inside the school will know better why heis there, will want to be there, and, inside that place, will feel a strongand beautiful awareness of his own, individual identity and a community ofspirit and enterprise with those beside him. The Supervisors must be thedriving force behind the establishment of healthy, workable, productiverelationships with their teachers.
This shift is not complete and there is stillmore talk about Procedures than the underlying rationale (198 , p. He wrote his book because of unhappiness with the schools and becauseof excitement about the possibilities of improvement (Goldhammer, 1969,Preface). To reduce that tensionrequires supervision knowledge and training, mainly in collecting data. Clinical supervision is a method for improving instruction, goal-oriented, systematic, yet flexible, requiring role delineation, mutual trust andrapport nurturance (1982, pp.
He was an early proponent of the processof "clinical supervision," a term coined by his mentor, Morris Cogan, during their mutual work at Harvard (Krajewski & Anderson, 198 , p. Educational Leadership, 37, 42 -423.----------------------- 14 57-61). This visit is always by appointment, never a surprise.
These are the values thatmotivate our work and give rise to our ambition" (Goldhammer, 1969, p.
Robert Goldhammer Robert Goldhammer was an educator who strongly believed that teachersshould have ongoing supervision in order to continue their effectivenessand to maximize pupil learning. The mission of clinical supervision is one of educating the wholeperson, child, teacher and supervisor, not necessarily in that order but ina relationship among the three that works to a synergistic benefit of all. Neither supervisor nor teacher is demeaned to the role of a mechanisticproducer of education; both are encouraged to bring their whole selves tothe teaching-learning process, to be aware of the whys and integrate themwith the hows (Krajewski, 1982, p. . 423). 4 ), and it does students and teachers both a disservice to jumpto the application level without a solid theoretical base.
It must produceobjective, measurable accomplishments. Goldhammermerely intended for this term to mean face-to-face. Both participants must know, understand and accept each other's role.
Here the supervisor may self-question, "What kinds of rewards do I offer?" Are either of us behaving instereotyped aspects of our roles?" "Is there any semantic confusion?
"(Goldhammer, 1969, p. Both its motivationand methods seemed to be random and archaic, with teachers expectingsupervisors to be punitive and supervisors not knowing what they were doingnor why. When Krajewski and Anderson revised the first text, there hadtranspired a slight shift from the methods of supervision to an emphasis onthe concept of supervision.
421). 5). These writers seem to concur that at present, clinical supervisionremains like music heard from a room far away (Goldhammer, Anderson &Krajewski, 198 , p. 3-4) he irreverentlycriticizes the relevance of current curriculum, stating that he has seen noteaching on the family that embodies "disaffection, divorce, cynicism, loneliness, neurosis, bastardy, atheism, tension, self-doubt, wrecked carsand cockroaches.
" The students quite early perceive that the washed-outversion of life put forth in the schools does not match their reality andthey come to distrust teachers and schools. 42).
The twoparticipants revise the supervisory contract, and plans are made for thenext visit (1969, pp. 42). students of Goldhammer andCogan, tend to emphasize method, not theory (p. "Whilewe cannot, obviously, make promises that are as large as our dreams, we canproclaim those dreams and let ourselves be guided by them" (Krajewski &Anderson, 198 , p.
It is instead an intimate, face-to-face, mutuallytrusting meeting in which personal things may be discussed to furtherenhance the teacher's capability to teach the students.
These close relationships are for the purpose of examination ofteaching behaviors. As clinicalsupervision, both in the rationale and method aspects, becomes closer toeducators' mind-sets, it is better accepted as a valuable instructionalprocedure. . Supervisors don't necessarily need to be master teachers, but theymust be experienced, more experienced than those they observe, empatheticand people whom the teachers do not fear. 368). Literature was just beginningto take shape at the time of Goldhammer's death.
This meeting signifies that the teacher isimportant to the supervisor, and it is almost never acceptable to conductan observation without a follow-up conference. Goldhammer believed the mission of clinical supervision was toprovide close, intimate relationships for the sake of the teachers'learning so that, in turn, the teachers could foster such personalrelationships with their students and enhance their learning. Goldhammer abhors the almostuniversal deficiency among supervisors in their inability to deal with theemotional ramifications of learning to teach, teaching, and being observedwhile teaching. The supervision must be mostly analytical, rational, unmysterious. Dissertation studies, mostly by.
(198 ). Theory or Research Base of Clinical Supervision At the time of Goldhammer's writing, clinical supervision was not arecognized discipline within the field of education.
Supervision is most likelyto succeed if the supervisor can accept the occurrence of problems in theclassroom without attaching any stigma to the teacher. In the opening chapter of his book (pp. Krajewski summarizes the theory of clinical supervision as follows:Deliberate intervention into the instructional process creates productivetension for both the teacher and supervisor.
It has been found that when teachers pay attention to specificlearning styles of students and match their teaching to those particularmodes, greater learning will happen.
What are the skills needed for supervisors?
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