W. E.B. DuBois, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X: A Comparison W. E.B. DuBois, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X: A Comparison Term Paper ID:43023 Essay Subject: compares the careers of W. E.
B. DuBois, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X... 8 Pages / 1800 Words 6 sources, 20 Citations, MLA Format 32.00 Paper Introduction: W E B DuBois Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X A Comparison Throughout American history the Civil Rights movement has beengraced with a variety of visionary leaders Not surprisingly each leaderpossessed different perspectives on the philosophical basis of the movementas well as the methods the movement should employ to overcome them As aresult each leader met with varying reactions from their contemporariesand the American public at large Understanding the different styles ofand responses to each leader represents a crucial step in His earlyattempts to dilute the efforts of Booker T.
The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X. As a minister and a "militant blackprotest leader," Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Malcolm Xundertook a large part of his activist work in concert with ElijahMuhammad's Nation of Islam.
King often met with violent opposition in the South and the North. Images of policemen assaulting demonstrators in Montgomery and Selma wereincredibly commonplace; indeed, they were crucial to the Civil Rightsmovement. 3 Apr 2 9 .
Works Cited Branch, Taylor. Some African-American organizations and leaders viewed Kingas too conservative for not employing more revolutionary tactics; othersviewed him as too radical for upsetting a process of gradual change. DuBois, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm Xand compare their ideologies, methods, and public reactions.
Hispolitical philosophy included an explicit call for violent action after amovement's demands had not been met. "I Have a Dream." American Rhetoric: The Powerof Oratory in the United States. This passage provides asignificant example: The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny (King). Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1986.
King's anecdote reinforces a crucial point about all three CivilRights leaders under consideration here. Franklin and Meier argue that African-American leadershiphistorically came from two sources. As aresult, each leader met with varying reactions from their contemporariesand the American public at large. To black audiences, his forceful argument that the status quo couldnot change until all African-Americans consistently demanded equality upsetvarious "conservative" figures in the Tuskegee movement led by Booker T.
Washington, especially because he insistently called for "militant protestand agitation" (Franklin and Meier 65). At Caanan's Edge. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 199 . Franklin, John, and August Meier, eds.
Understanding the different styles ofand responses to each leader represents a crucial step in framing the CivilRights movement in a historical perspective. King, Martin Luther.
He thought it would make it easier for me in the long run (King)In the end, Malcolm X served as facilitator of thought and action in theCivil Rights movement. W. E.B DuBois. His views became more extremeas he advocated for Black Socialism and began to play an integral part inthe separatist Pan-Africa movement.
King carried out his strategy and his speaking with a variety of CivilRights organizations: the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) and theSouthern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) represent two key examples. Ultimately, Malcolm X did work with MartinLuther King Jr.
, not by joining King's cause but by opposing it. Recounting a speech by Malcolm X in Selma, Alabama, Dr.
King stated that: You know, right before he was killed he came down to Selma and said some pretty passionate things against me, and that surprised me because after all it was my territory there. Champaign, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1982.
In summary, DuBois often found himself resting at odds withthe "current mainstream of black thinking" and a "series of stormyconflicts" characterized his relationship with other black leaders(Franklin and Meier 64). In light of the fact that King'sideology incorporated a clear plan for action which was enacted on nationalscale, his work stands in clear contrast the largely intellectualpositioning of DuBois.
But afterwards he took my wife aside, and said he thought he could help me more by attacking me than praising me. Rudwick and DuBois employ the term's original definition, which does not have the negative connotation of an individual attempting tosway opinion against a just cause. Outside of his clear opponents, King facedambivalent reactions from members of the African-American and whitecommunities. AfterKing's initial successes, mainstream whites questioned King's continued useof demonstrations, as many of the protests ended in violence (Franklin andMeier 291-292). American society owes theprogress made toward that end to all three, their fellow leaders, and theirfollowers.
Malcolm X andother activists of his generation experienced a fundamental separatistimpulse akin to DuBois'. His incredibly compelling orator, exemplified in"I Have a Dream," made him just as much of a propagandist as DuBois. However, his rhetoric was far more inclusive. Rudwick describes DuBois' early "impotence" as a leader againstmainstream African-American thought (Franklin and Meier 67). DuBois, Martin Luther King Jr.
, and Malcolm X: A Comparison Throughout American history, the Civil Rights movement has beengraced with a variety of visionary leaders. He left for Ghana in the early 6 s ashis domestic contributions to the Civil Rights movement had beenmarginalized. As Peter Goldman describes, "King's politics was (sic) insistentlymultiracial, Malcolm's insistently black; King's means were nonviolent, which Malcolm considered beggarly" (Franklin and Meier 317).
If the government...does not resign, collapse, or permit...some form of political autonomy to the oppressed minority...
[we] are left with no alternative than the use of physical force without popular sanction and against popular action (Shabazz 65). He also met with some of his harshest opposition in Chicago-where repeated mob violence and political opposition severely hampered hisefforts (Branch 516).
The mainstream Civil Rights movement also viewed Malcolm Xas a threat to their success and ostracized him throughout his career(Franklin and Meier 316). Malcolm X, "Malcolm X Quotations." Malcolm-x.
org. However, the "black direct-action protest movement" began toadopt his ideals into their ideology (Franklin and Meier 79-82).
Early community leadership came fromthe African-American clergy, while later leaders came from intellectualactivist circles, like W. E.
B. Marable, Manning. Washington and others throughparticipating in the Carnegie Hall Conference met with failure. Incontrast to Martin Luther King's inclusive rhetoric, Malcolm X wasunapologetically divisive.
Partially because of this association, thewhite press and public perceived Malcolm X as "cartoon Black Musliminciting an otherwise pacific black underclass to insurrection" (Franklinand Meier 317). In many ways, Malcolm X's ideologies align with DuBois'.
With his organizational success, King represented a more effective leaderthan DuBois. King managed to steer between the Scylla and Charybdis ofhis ideological opponents and enact monumental changes in American society. W.
E.B. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2 6. This essay will examine therespective careers of W. E.
B. Not surprisingly, each leaderpossessed different perspectives on the philosophical basis of the movementas well as the methods the movement should employ to overcome them. Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. DuBois' propaganda often took on a strident tone in eyes ofboth whites and blacks. Regardless of their ideologiesand methods, DuBois, King, and Malcolm X all devoted themselves to the samehigher goal-equality for African-Americans.
Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century. DuBois' use of propaganda served to"employ symbols to influence the feelings and behavior of an audience" inservice of justice (Franklin and Meier 63). Asdiscussed earlier, later black revolutionaries had an immense respect forDuBois' thought, and Malcom X would have been no exception.
DuBois African-American historical scholar Elliot Rudwick describesW. E.B. Malcolm X Malcolm X presents a marked contrast to Martin Luther King Jr.
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