LENIN'S NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP). LENIN'S NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP). Term Paper ID:29983 Buy This Paper Essay Subject: Analysis of principal elements of the NEP.... 9 Pages / 2025 Words 7 sources, 27 Citations, APA Format 36.00 Paper Abstract: Analysis of principal elements of the NEP. Lenin's ideological commitment to the interntional socialist revolution; Marxist ideology; Communism. Radical Bolshevik wing & failures of Bolshevik governance. Agrarian polich; Urban industrial and agrarian peasant interests.
Soviet commitment to national economic growth. Annotated Bibliographjy.Paper Introduction: This research examines the reasons behind Lenin's adoption of the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1921 in the wake of the Soviet revolution in 1917.
The research will set forth the principal elements of the NEP and the context in which it emerged as an issue for the Bolshevik/Communist government, and then explore the literature of the Soviet state with a view toward identifying factors that positioned Lenin to promulgate the policy. In order to understand Lenin's adoption of the NEP, it is necessary to appreciate Lenin's ideological commitment to international socialist revolution, the establishment of the War Communism policy (precursor of the NEP), as well as the dynamic situation of revolutionary governance in Russia from the time of the 1917 success of the Bolsheviks until 1921, when the NEP was offic 356-7). (1994).
Formally endorsed by the TenthCongress at Lenin's behest, the NEP provided a public mandate for socialand economic reconfiguration. (1972).
In 1919, says Volkogonov, Lenin resisted agrarian-enterprise policyinitiatives that would later be incorporated into the NEP in 1921. 231-62. 146). To tolerate the bourgeois newspapers would mean to cease being a Socialist. 263-9 .
He who now talks about the 'freedom of the Press' goes backward, and halts our headlong course toward Socialism. Public tolerance of such policies, says Husband (1997, p.
It wasintended "to invigorate the grass-roots economy and generate investmentcapital for industrialization" (Husband, 1997, p. Freeze (Ed.). This analysis of theneed for the NEP gave Russia's massive social dislocation a human scale, which is to say that the NEP allowed Lenin to put the face of ordinaryhuman experience on the international-socialist agenda: Lenin made a virtueof necessity, or lemonade (or as it were Leninade) out of the NEP lemon.
. 264), as well as "other emergency measures reachedit limit, [and] workers and peasants openly defied Soviet power. 146) quote Lenin's descriptionof War Communism as a "makeshift" response to "the war and the ruin," anecessary exercise in proletariat leadership of all society frombourgeoisie to peasantry, to guarantee the ultimate socialist victory. The NEP appears to have occasioned a discernible shift inLenin's revolutionary rhetoric that enabled him to seize the discourse ofpolicy and retain that control. . The era of the NEP was marked by a formal Soviet commitment tonational economic growth.
Lenin's cadres set about the project of institutionalizing communistcontrol over all segments of Russian society, overseen by intellectualcadres that guided the course of the dictatorship of the proletariat as ittook control of the means of production. Throughout his tenure in power, Lenin never relinquished the view thatthe locus of political and economic control in Russia should rest with theparty, "the Communists, the responsible officials" (in Fischer and Marek,1972, p. Lenin: A new biography. Ernst Fischer & Franz Marek(Eds.). 258) says Lenindevised after the fact in order to emphasize its provisional nature.
penetrates deep into the ranks of theproletariat" (in Fischer and Marek, 1972, p. Reed, J. The mechanism was the SupremeCouncil of the National Economy, which nationalized all factories andprohibited all private commerce, including agricultural production(Husband, 1997, p.
(1997). Fischer and Marek (1972, p. G. . It is Lenin's rhetorical pattern to attribute failures of Bolshevikgovernance to various features of bourgeois capitalism, whether the remnantinside Russia that resisted dictatorship of the proletariat orinternational capitalist political economies hostile to the communistvictory. That allowed therevolutionary government to focus on events inside Russia.
265). Industrial production, which was always Marx's concern, meanwhile "remained in the hands of the workers' state. The strength ofLenin's ideological commitment was undoubtedly reinforced by theineffectuality and disintegration of both the Romanoff dynasty and theprovisional revolutionary government of Krenesky, which allowed Lenin'sradical Bolshevik wing to appropriate revolutionary leadership and controlof Russia's state apparatus. Butone need not agree with Volkogonov's logic or with the view that Leninoverreached in a bid for international revolutionary power to see that thecredibility of the revolution and its War Communism economy suffered underBolshevik stewardship. But Lenin was always cynicalabout it: In Lenin's view, War Communism would lead to the future commune-state, a commune imbued with the proletarian consciousness he was to impart to it--although he hardly believed in it himself (Volkogonov, 1994, p.
That seems reason enough for anyambitious and capable political operative either to have adopted the NEP orto have taken credit for doing so. (1961).
Further, the failure of War Communism can be set beside evidence ofsimple disagreement on the part of a mostly illiterate peasantry with theobjectives of intellectualist-socialist-utopian triumphalism beingimplemented by a newly empowered urban bureaucracy operating in theprovinces. . Building Stalinism, 1929-1941. the petty-bourgeois element which.
Russia: A History. G. In order to understand Lenin's adoption of the NEP, it is necessary toappreciate Lenin's ideological commitment to international socialistrevolution, the establishment of the War Communism policy (precursor of theNEP), as well as the dynamic situation of revolutionary governance inRussia from the time of the 1917 success of the Bolsheviks until 1921, whenthe NEP was officially adopted by the Soviet government. I.
Vernadsky, G. . New York: Random House. New York: Bantam. 275-6).
This research examines the reasons behind Lenin's adoption of the NewEconomic Policy (NEP) in 1921 in the wake of the Soviet revolution in 1917.The research will set forth the principal elements of the NEP and thecontext in which it emerged as an issue for the Bolshevik/Communistgovernment, and then explore the literature of the Soviet state with a viewtoward identifying factors that positioned Lenin to promulgate the policy. 15 ). . In this regard, Orlovsky (1997, p.
Freeze (Ed.). And it did not succeed initiallybecause capital equipment was so far depleted or damaged and becauseagricultural production had suffered under the pressures of famine, violence, and attempts at ideological management of farm practices.
Invoking theslogan "peace, land, bread" and in concert with fellow Bolsheviks Stalinand Trotsky, Lenin gathered adherents among civilians and the military andsuccessfully dislodged Russia from the Great War in 1917 by means of aseparate peace with the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk. In that regard, Orlovsky (1997, p. L. The effect was to virtually guarantee WarCommunism's temporary nature.
149). . Second, building on this theme, Lenin proposed that the revolutionarystate seize the instruments of bourgeois economy, becoming a "cautious, assiduous and shrewd 'businessman,'" so as to raise the economic level ofthe small-peasant country (Fischer and Marek, 1972, p. Unfortunately for the program, world-historical events did not comply.
Volkogonov (1994, p. 272). (196 ).
Lenin, V. . When one makes a Revolution, one cannot mark time; one must always go forward--or go back. Husband, W. But matters had shifted by 1921. Butit is difficult to see how Lenin could attribute the motives of discontentfrom left and right solely to bourgeois capitalist influences, whetherforeign or domestic.
Reds. 146) quote Lenin's statement of regretthat the War Communism agrarian policy could not have been structured as anexchange of peasant-supplied food for proletariat-manufactured finishedgoods, as if he might have organized things if only he had realized howpeople felt. Now that the insurrection is over, we have absolutely no desire to suppress the papers of the other Socialist parties, except inasmuch as they appeal to armed insurrection, or to disobedience to the Soviet Government (Reed, 196 , pp.
149). The essential Lenin.
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