INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION. Term Paper ID:22712 Buy This Paper Essay Subject: Theory & research on administrative supervision of teachers, including suggestions for improvements.... 14 Pages / 3150 Words 16 sources, 33 Citations, APA Format 56.00 Paper Abstract: Theory & research on administrative supervision of teachers, including suggestions for improvements.
Paper Introduction: Introduction Ornstein and Hunkins (1993) have stated that the field of curriculum/instruction is directly related to the field of supervision. As the authors put it: ...once curriculum is created, we need to "look" at, to supervise, how it is being delivered.
(p. 201) The purpose of the paper presented here is to examine theory and research on instructional supervision. The presented review begins with a brief historical overview of theoretical approaches to instructional supervision.
More current research is then examined. In general, the review focuses on literature that emphasizes theoretical conceptions of those methods and procedures school administrators can use to improve school instruction.
The administratorthen enters the classroom with a virtual checklist of those activities thattraining has taught, activities said to make for effective instruction, e.g. The model holds that it is the learning ofnew information in a structured educational setting that will result inimproved instruction, not any specific corrections which the principalmight give to teachers. Spier (1994), however, has taken a more empirical approach tospecifying the activities and qualities needed for effective instructionalsupervision.
Theories embedded in the events of clinicalsupervision: A humanistic approach. In addition, classroom and remedial teachers indicated greatersupervision satisfaction following principals' participation in theprogram.
Most earlytheoreticians asserted that it was not so much what principals did toinfluence change in instruction that produced it; rather, change was morelikely to occur as a function of what teachers believed to be the knowledgebase, credentials and social influence of the principal. Dissertation AbstractsInternational, 49(1 - A), p.
Okeafor, K. R. (1983). (4) While there are numerous theories of instructional supervision, few of these have been tested empirically. Hills, J.
This knowledge, Pajak and McAfee (1992) state, should then be used byprincipals in a directive and authoritative manner. Hunter, M. The findings were said to support the view thatmaster's, specialist, and doctoral levels of professional preparationshould exist for school principals.
Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and theory. NASSP Bulletin, 76(547), 21-3 . This fact is demonstratedin an article published by Hills (1991). Theinstructional program emphasized three categories of instructionalsupervision.
However, one fairly rigorousempirical approach to instructional supervision suggested that in theopinions of educations, improvement in instruction is most likely to occurif principals are knowledgeable about instructional technology, havecollaborative working relationships with teachers, and adopt a problem-solving approach. Knowing, teaching, and supervising.
Regarding more current notions of effective instructionalsupervision, several different theoretical models have been developed. First, there is the traditional model of instructional supervision perhapsbest characterized in the writings of Hunter (1984). What needs to be noted here is that Garman's emphasis is upon formingrelationships with teachers and jointly fulfilling the responsibility ofinstructional improvement.
This notion has received some support in the existingliterature. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, Spring, 2 1-213. Garman (199 ) refers to this view of instructional supervision as thetheory of consensual domain because when the steps are properly carried outthey foster a sense of joint action and decision making betweenadministrators and teachers. It can be noted here that the situational leadership model holds thatgroup performance is a function of the combination of a leader's style andseveral relevant features of the situation According to the theory, asituation in which leader-member relationships are relatively good ispotentially much easier to manage than a situation where relationships arestrained.
The model commonly requires that teachers be given some pre-trainingin effective instructional strategies and techniques. According to Glickman, the administrator functions as"glue" in the sense that he or she successfully molds the myriad elementsof instructional effectiveness into successful school action wheresuccessfully school action is ultimately manifested as high qualityinstruction resulting in strong levels of student achievement. 2878. Research indicated thatthis problem can be solved by providing principals with time managementclasses specifically designed to help them find more time and moreeffective methods of performing instructional supervision.
(1993). In fact, Maher reports that most principals probablylearn most of what they need to know about instructional supervision incollege. In an effort to test this approach, Maher (1986) evaluated a smallsample of principals who received nine hours of instruction in a three-phase, time-management approach to instructional supervision. Phelps (199 ) states that educators need to get beyond prescriptivesupervision, and recommends a "medical" model. (2) Although theoretical models of instructional supervision differ, most theories hold that an important element of maximal instructionimprovement is the formation of good relationships between administratorsand teachers.
Therefore, according to Maher what principals need with respect to education is somesort of workshops designed to help them manage their time so that they canperform those activities required of them to improve their effectiveness assupervisors of instruction. Rx instructional supervision: Look to thephysician. Once this consensus has been reached, the principal then observesteachers' instructional methods in the classroom. Instructional leadership as collaborative sense-making. Instructional supervision andthe avoidance process.
Hunter's traditional approach to instructional supervision is stilloften advocated in the current literature. Barr, William H. Supervision of instruction. The results of this study, according to Lobban (1988), revealedseveral important considerations that provide the basis for development ofa process that promotes continuous improvement of instruction by increasingsupervisors' instructional supervision effectiveness. Through an extensive review of the literature, 287 competencystatements of knowledge and skills were initially identified.
DissertationAbstracts International, 55( 9-A), p. (3) Utilizing some sort of consensual, joint-decision making approachto instructional supervision is going to help not only in improvinginstruction but in improving administrator/teacher relationships. The presented review begins with a briefhistorical overview of theoretical approaches to instructional supervision. Over the years, several theories have been developed as attempts tospecify those steps which principals need to take in order to be effectiveinstructional supervisors. This model advocates that principals form close relationships withteachers but rather than evaluating their performance, the principal worksto improve their knowledge and understanding of instruction by encouragingthem to continue taking classes.
Data indicated that the collaborative effort wasperceived by teachers as resulting in the highest levels of instructionalimprovement. With respect to empirical work, Hunter's model has had mixed results.
In other words, principals should facilitate instructional improvement by effectivelymanaging school governance and by making sound decisions concerningstaffing, instructional supervision, scheduling, and materials selection. (1987). Instructional Supervision: Theory and Research Glickman (199 ) has conceptualized supervision as the "glue" of asuccessful school. (1991).
(1992). (199 ). As delineated byHunter, this model postulates the principal as directive and authoritative. Sixteen supervisors and sixty-six teachers engaged in instructionalsupervision were surveyed in Lobban's (1988) study in order to identifytheir perceptions of supervision and leadership effectiveness. (p.
This need for clarification of thinking in the area of instructionalsupervision can probably not be overestimated. skill modeling, guided practice, presenting /interpersonal.
(1991). The South Carolina PET study:Teachers' perceptions and student achievement.
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